Starry stonewort distribution in 2017 (3).
Starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa) looks like a rooted plant but it is actually an algae. The plant is native to Europe and Asia and was first discovered in the St. Lawrence River in 19781. In 1983, it was found in the Detroit River near Belle Isle2, and as of May 2017, starry stonewort was present in over half the counties in the southern Lower Peninsula3.
Bulbils are small, but visible to the naked eye.
Both male and female starry stonewort plants occur in Europe and Asia, and either sexual or vegetative reproduction can occur. In North America, only male plants have been found4,5. As such, it may be that North American starry stonewort only reproduces vegetatively, and all plants are clones; new plants sprout from bulbils or grow from fragments4. Up to 500 bulbils per square yard were found in Lake Koronis in central Minnesota6.
There has been very little research on the ecological impacts of the North American starry stonewort invasion. One study did find that the diversity and abundance of rooted plants decrease when starry stonewort is present7. Laboratory testing has shown that starry stonewort can release substances that inhibit the growth of some types of blue-green algae, but has not been confirmed in nature8.
Starry stonewort has a tendency to colonize deeper waters and can form dense, nearly impenetrable mats, several feet thick9. In many infested lakes, starry stonewort impedes navigation and other recreational activities.
Control of starry stonewort remains a challenge. Herbicide treatments and mechanical harvesting are partially effective at controlling starry stonewort infestations and may work best when used in combination6. However, neither herbicides nor mechanical harvesting reduce the viability of bulbils, therefore, the plants can continue to overwinter and reproduce. Control of starry stonewort infestations via diver-assisted suction harvesting is time- and labor-intensive, and may require repeat visits to maintain control3. It appears that burlap mats provide only short-term control of starry stonewort; sedimentation of the mats and invasion along the mats’ edge may preclude effective long-term control of starry stonewort (A. Tucker, personal communication, July 9, 2018).
Periodic aquatic vegetation surveys to detect early infestations of starry stonewort are recommended so that quick action can be taken to attempt to suppress the spread of the plant. Much more research is needed to understand the impacts of starry stonewort and to improve methods to control this invasive plant.
1 Schloesser D.W., P.L. Hudson, and J. Nichols. 1986. Distribution and habitat of Nitellopsis obtusa (Characeae) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Hydrobiologia. 133: 91-96.
2 Nichols, S.J., D.W. Schloesser, and J.W. Geis. 1988. Seasonal growth of the exotic submerged macrophyte Nitellopsis obtusa in the Detroit River of the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 116-118.
3 Hackett, R.A., B.C. Cahill, and A.K. Monfils. 2017. 2017 Status and strategy for starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa (Desv. in Loisel.) J. Groves) management. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Lansing, Michigan.
4 Larkin, D.J., A.K. Monfils, A. Boissezon, R.S. Sleith, P.M. Skawinski, C.H. Welling, B.C. Cahill, K.G. Karol. 2018. Biology, ecology, and management of starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa; Characeae): A Red-listed Eurasian green alga invasive in North America. Aquatic Botany. 148:15–24.
5 Sleith, R.S., Havens, A.J., Stewart, R.A., Karol, K.G., 2015. Distribution of Nitellopsis obtusa (Characeae) in New York, USA. Brittonia. 67:166–172.
6 Glisson, W.J., C.K. Wagner, S.R. McComas, K. Farnum, M.R. Verhoeven, R. Muthukrishnan, D.J. Larkin. 2017. Response of the invasive alga starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa) to control eﬀorts in a Minnesota lake. Lake and Reservoir Management. DOI: 10.1080/10402381.2018.1442893.
7 Brainard, A.S. and K.L. Schulz. 2017. Impacts of the cryptic macroalgal invader, Nitellopsis obtusa, on macrophyte communities. Freshwater Science. 36(1):55–62.
8 Berger, J. and M. Schagerl. 2004. Allelopathic activity of Characeae. Biologia, Bratislava. 59: 9–15.
9 Geis, J.W., G.J. Schumacher, D.J. Raynal, N.P. Hyduke. 1981. Distribution of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Characeae) in the St. Lawrence River: A new record for North America. Phycologia. 20: 211–214.